How Far Is 900 Meters In Miles – Lights can be detected down to 1,000 meters below sea level, but are rare above 200 meters.
The ocean is divided into three zones according to depth and light level. Some marine organisms depend on light while others can survive without light. “photic” is a derivative of “photon”, the word for a particle of light. A full transcript is available that presents the content of this infographic in plain text.
How Far Is 900 Meters In Miles
Sunlight entering water can travel about 1,000 meters in the ocean under the right conditions, but is rarely seen more than 200 meters.
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The ocean is divided into three zones according to depth and light level. The upper 200 meters of the ocean is called the euphotic or “sunshine” zone. The area is home to a large number of commercial fisheries and is home to many protected marine mammals and sea turtles.
The zone between 200 m and 1000 m is commonly called the “twilight” zone, but is formally the dysphotic zone. As depth increases in this region, the intensity of light spreads rapidly. At a depth of 200 meters, so little light penetrates that photosynthesis is no longer possible.
The apoetic zone is located at a depth of less than 1000 meters. Sunlight does not penetrate these depths and the area is bathed in darkness. The Apotic Zone is further divided into the Bathypelagic Zone (or Midnight Zone) from 1,000 to 4,000 m, the Abyss (or Abyss) from 4,000 to 6,000 m and the Hadopelagic Zone (or Hadal Zone). 6,000 meters and deeper. More than 900 kilometers of fiber optic cables along the Oregon coast allow monitoring of volcanic and hydrothermal activity, methane seeps, earthquakes and countless ocean processes in coastal and blue water environments.
A cable network, the Regional Cable Array (RCA) is the first US ocean observatory to cover plate tectonics. RCA provides unprecedented power (10 kV, 8 kW), bandwidth (10 Gigabit Ethernet (GbE)), and real-time two-way communication with sensors and instruments on the ocean floor and in the water column of the Juan de Fuca Plate. Transmission capacity is provided by Shore Station in Pacific City, Oregon, which is the termination point for submarine cables and the connection point for terrestrial fiber.
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A portion of the submarine cable completed in 2014 spans the Slope Base (2,900 m), South Hydrate Range (800 m) and Oregon Endurance offshore (600 m) research areas at the foot of the continental margin. Shelf (80 m) spaces. A second cable runs 498 kilometers (310 mi) west to the Axial Seamount research site on the Juan de Fuca Ridge.
RCA powers three arrays that conduct various scientific investigations: the Cable Continental Margin Array, the Cable Axial Seamount Array, and the Cable Endurance Array in Oregon. Over 150 major OOI devices are connected to RCA, with considerable expansion capability. In addition, there are several external funding agencies for RCA (National Science Foundation, NASA, Office of Naval Research, and the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research).
RCA’s core infrastructure distributes power and communications from an offshore station in Pacific City, Oregon, to subsea terminals (primary nodes) at a depth of ~3,000 meters along the Juan de Fuca plate.
Primary infrastructure consists of several components, including the backhaul system and the infrastructure within the shore station. The backhaul system provides Internet connectivity to the Shore Station and CyberPop (Cyber Point of Presence) and data center that includes RCA and the West Coast Cyber Infrastructure Window in Seattle, Washington.
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The shore station has power feed equipment for each of the submarine cables running from the shore station to the sea to convert the utility power into high power (up to 200 kW) regulated and controlled power. The shore station also includes line termination equipment, with optical drivers and receivers for submarine cables terminated at the shore station. Cable landings allow submarine cables to run from the sea floor through buried conduits to a shore station.
There are approximately ~900 km of trunk cables connecting the shore station to the primary nodes. Trunk cables are fiber optic telecommunications cables, a telecommunications industry standard known for their longevity. A cable extends south from the shore station to the base of the slope, the south hydrate ridge, and offshore and shelf locations in Oregon. A second main cable passes through the Juan de Fuca tectonic plate to an axial seamount research site on the Juan de Fuca Ridge at an ocean depth of 2,900 m.
Primary nodes provide two-way communication between high power (8 kW) and high bandwidth (10 GbE) secondary junction boxes, devices and bundles and edge stations. They are also distribution centers for sensors, instrument platforms, and extension cables that provide power and communications to the tethers, for continuous, real-time interactive science experiments on the ocean floor and in the water column.
PN01A Cascadia Accretionary Margin (OR Base of Slope) PN01B Southern Hydrate Ridge PN01C Continental Slope Newport, OR (Oregon Offshore) PN01D Base of Continental Shelf Newport, OR (Oregon Shelf) PN01A. Axial Seamount (Axial Base) PN03B Axial Seamount Above (ASHES Vent Field) PN05A On Middle Plate, Without Tools
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Each main node has a medium voltage converter which converts the 10 kVdc main level voltage to 375 Vdc level. Power (375 V) and communication (1 GbE) are distributed from the primary nodes to the secondary infrastructure (low and medium power nodes) at scientific workstations through extension cables connected to the science ports on the nodes. In addition, each core node has two science ports that allow power and full bandwidth (10GbE) connection to special devices such as high-definition cameras, as well as full power and bandwidth transmission over long distances (>200 km) is an extension. port. Tool spaces.
Secondary infrastructure includes all extension cables, low power and medium power junction boxes, low voltage nodes, six water column moorings, seabed and mooring sensor packages. Extension cables connect this infrastructure to primary nodes.
The regional cable array secondary infrastructure consists of 18 medium and low-power junction boxes (J-boxes) and low-voltage nodes that distribute power, communication and timing to equipment. Whether the equipment is connected to a medium or low power junction box depends on the power requirements of the equipment. Medium-power J-boxes are connected directly to the primary nodes via extension cables and receive an input voltage of 375 volts DC and input data at 1 GigE. Each junction box has eight device ports for 12 to 48 V and 10/100BASE-T, RS232 or RS485 data links.
Low-power junction boxes are connected to low-voltage nodes and have an input voltage of 48 volts DC and input data at 10/100BASE-T. They have eight instrument ports with 12 to 48 V and 10/100BASE-T, RS232 or RS485 data links.
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Instruments that provide information on water column characteristics are located on the seabed and in deep and shallow profiler plots. These instruments, including instruments for collecting data on sea surface and biological processes, total 150. Power and communication are provided through 61 km (29 km buried) extension cables to secondary infrastructure and equipment.
The ports are configured prior to launch, include wet and dry communication connections, and are operated by remotely operated vehicles (ROVs). Expansion ports provide “chain-to-chain” capabilities via expansion cables, making the system highly expandable.
RCA’s total submarine fiber optic cable length is 870 km (540 mi), 290 km (180 mi) of which are buried in ~1,500 m of water. Remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) were used to conduct post-burial inspections and any necessary burials. The remaining 579 kilometers (360 mi) of cable were laid without the need for deep water burial. A thousand years ago, around 1085 AD, the landscape was unrecognizable amid a violent volcanic eruption. The lives of the people who live here. For days or weeks before the eruption, the ground shook, forcing the mass evacuation of pithouses and farms buried in lava. The ground then opened with a large fissure 6 miles (11 km) long, from which lava spewed 850 feet (260 m) or more.
This type of “curtain of fire” eruption is relatively common at Hawaiian volcanoes, and the eruption here at Sunset Crater in 1085 was very familiar to Native Hawaiians. It may also be familiar to people who live here – although eruptions in northern Arizona are less frequent than in Hawaii, volcanic activity has continued here for hundreds of thousands of years.
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As the lava flow grew, the activity became concentrated in several locations along the fissure. After the lava from the fissure cools, it falls to the ground in small rocks called cinders. Other, larger pieces of lava are called lava bombs. It launched cinder and lava bombs
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